Recent distribution of Gentianella amarella in the Czech Republic

Jiří Brabec, Lukáš Krinke, Michal Štefánek, Jan Kirschner, Lída Kirschnerová

In the years 2000–2020, a total of 72 recent localities of Gentianella amarella subsp. amarella were surveyed across the Czech Republic. Specimens with traits intermediate between subsp. amarella and subsp. lingulata were found at a locality in the Polabí region. At some other localities in the Krušné hory Mts., populations of plants flowering six to eight weeks earlier than the typical G. *amarella (from late June to early August with the optimum in mid-July) are present. Some plants of these population exhibit slightly different quantitative morphological traits (e. g. larger flowers of around 20 mm in length, irregular sepals, etc.). At five localities in the foothills of the Bohemian Forest and at one locality in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, G. amarella subsp. amarella co-occurs with G. praecox subsp. bohemica. At five of them (and also at an additional locality in the foothills of the Bohemian Forest, where G. *bohemica is missing), the hybrid G. ×austoamarella was recorded during the survey period.

Each recent locality of G. amarella is described as follows: localisation (incl. GPS coordinates) – brief description of vegetation (community, character and/or dominants) – significant species – locality management, possible threats – state and survival of the Dwarf Gentian population. At the end of locality description, the numbers of recorded flowering/seed-bearing Dwarf Gentian for every year when a locality was visited is given. The number of plants withering before or during flowering is specified in brackets.

Sufficient space (gaps) in the vegetation has an essential effect on the establishment and survival of Dwarf Gentian. This can be secured by management of the localitties (mowing, grazing) at suitable times and by careful removal of plant litter and moss.